AESE insight #103 - AESE Business School - Formação de Executivos

AESE insight #103 > Thinking ahead

EU Cyber Challenges for the private sector

Paulo Moniz

Alumnus Executive MBA e Director of Information Security and IT Risk at EDP – Energias de Portugal

The private sector, especially within the European context, encounters numerous cybersecurity challenges. To gain a comprehensive understanding of these challenges, it is essential to acknowledge the particularities of the cyberspace, with focus on the responsibilities for private sector entities in this realm. Given this background, we propose to assess these challenges using a PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal) framework, skipping the environmental dimension, which holds less relevance in this specific context.

The cyberspace is a domain crafted by the mankind, possessing distinctive attributes that profoundly alter the role of the private sector within the cybersecurity landscape. Foremost among these considerations is the cyberspace’s capacity to erase conventional boundaries, rendering data universally accessible, irrespective of where or who we are at any given time. This abstract layer, commonly recognized as the internet, is exemplified by the myriad applications that facilitate our professional endeavors and supports critical services in our societies or the social networks that enrich our personal lives. These characteristics hold notable implications for the private sector in every domain of analysis, as we shall explore further.

Almost in opposition to this etheric essence that permeates the Internet is, in fact, its tangible nature, supported by physical infrastructures such as servers, cable networks, satellites, antennas and various devices within sovereign territories, often owned by private entities, with dispersed shareholder structures. This infrastructure is fundamental, functioning as the backbone of global connectivity, playing a crucial role in the contemporary dynamics of cybersecurity.

Discussing the private sector encompasses a vast and diverse landscape with various entities fulfilling distinct roles, including service providers, fabricants or utilities of varying sizes and structures. A detailed analysis of each player’s nuances would be extensive, so we will emphasize key aspects for consideration.


Starting this analysis by the political domain, the control of internet infrastructure by private companies carries significant political implications for cybersecurity. Notably, tech giants now wield unprecedented power, exemplified by Elon Musk’s decision to enable satellite communication support for Ukraine’s military operations, profoundly impacting the course of conflict. But in the political domain we might have others type of impacts, like political decisions to ban the use of a type of technology from a specific vendor or the entrusted role of private firms in managing sovereign countries’ critical infrastructures, such as energy and communications.

In today’s intricate global chessboard, with Europe as a prominent player, private companies face the complex challenge of navigating and adapting to political decisions and actions, striking a delicate balance between their economic interests and the geopolitical factors shaping their responsibilities in the cybersecurity terrain.


From an economic standpoint, cybersecurity yields a multifaceted impact on the private sector. The expansive EU cybersecurity market, bolstered by the goals outlined in the European Resilience Act and the imperative of establishing a self-reliant supply chain free from reliance on non-European nations, presents substantial challenges for companies within Europe to take the opportunity to innovate, manufacture, and scale hardware and software products.

Conversely, the financial ramifications of cyberattacks can be devasting. Expenses arise from incident response, legal penalties, regulatory fines, and breach recovery efforts. Indirect costs encompass damage to a company’s reputation, erosion of customer trust, and missed business prospects, all of which can potentially culminate in bankruptcy. Balancing these economic dimensions is a paramount challenge as private sector organizations navigate the intricate landscape of cybersecurity in the EU.


From the social perspective the most pressing challenge confronting private sector entities is the scarcity of cybersecurity expertise. The global deficit of cyber professionals, numbering in the millions, presents a grave risk not only to a nation’s business continuity and security but also to the operations and reputation of countless private companies, exerting a ripple effect on the global economy. Private sector organizations must unite and adopt an ecosystem-wide approach to cultivate a robust cyber talent pipeline for the future. Achieving this goal requires a combination of short- and long-term strategies.

In this context, Generative AI presents an opportunity to enhance cybersecurity efficiency by relieving cyber professionals of mundane tasks while expediting their skills development. Furthermore, within the social sphere, private sector companies must embrace the challenge of developing and offering technology products and services that align with societal values. This entails avoiding the misuse of technologies that foster dependence or erode transparency, among other potential hazards. Striking this balance is essential for preserving both the integrity of technology and the well-being of society.


The relentless evolution of technology continually reshapes the cybersecurity landscape, exerting profound impacts on organizations. This transformation not only widens the attack surface with the adoption of technologies like IoT devices, cloud computing, and AI-driven tools but also applies immense pressure on the private sector to swiftly embrace new technologies to gain competitive advantages. Consequently, development teams often struggle with tight time-to-market objectives, which can jeopardize cybersecurity controls implementation.

As organizations strive to harness technological innovation, they inadvertently create openings for cyber threats, while attackers capitalize on the same technological advances, exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities and harnessing AI for malicious purposes. Private companies, and European companies are particularly affected, frequently becoming prime targets for ransomware attacks.

In this intricate and frenetic milieu, organizations face the challenge of cultivating cybersecurity teams capable of keeping pace with new technology developments. They must cleverly integrate cybersecurity into their products and solutions, innovating cybersecurity functions along the way. The ultimate challenge for organizations, amidst advancing technology, is to outpace attackers and instill a security-by-design ethos throughout the organization, thereby proactively fortifying their defenses against evolving cyber threats.


In the legal context, it is widely acknowledged that cybersecurity stands as one of the foremost risks confronting modern societies. The evolving landscape of cyber threats and the tangible impacts of recent incidents have prompted the proliferation of global cybersecurity regulations. Governments, struggling with the complexities of this risk, often respond reactively and locally, giving rise to fragmented regulations that, in some instances, conflict with one another. This regulatory fragmentation imposes increased costs, inefficiencies, and, notably, diverts limited organizational resources away from the core mission of cybersecurity to compliance-related activities.

Organizations must confront the challenge of adopting a rigorous risk-based approach. This approach encompasses not only navigating a complex regulatory landscape but also proactively addressing the prevention, detection, and mitigation of cyber incidents adopting a security-first mindset that inherently results in compliance rather than the reverse.

In conclusion, cybersecurity has emerged as a primary concern for society, with profound implications for the private sector in the most diverse areas of analysis. Collaboration between organizations and governments is essential to mitigate this evolving global risk.

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